What is the importance of ‘education’ in British society? Has it contributed to promoting social mobility? (p. 82). Why not?
– The key to social mobility is education – “vicious circle”
– You have better possibilities after a good education
– More middleclass children than work class children goes to University
– Tuition – if you can’t pay you can’t go to University
What was laid down in the 1944 Education Act? (82)
– a tripartite system for England and Wales – children attend primary school until the age 11 – an exam divided them into groups. The once whom failed the exam went to less academic secondary modern school – whereas the more intelligent gifted went to grammar school, to prepare them for national exams.
What were the main points of criticism of the Butler Act? (82f)
* Socially divisive
* Maintaining class differences – The Eleven Plus Exam: When you divide children into technical and grammar school
* Determining life choices for children at too young an age
What was the significance of the 1988 Education Reform Act? (83f)
* It allowed schools to compete with each other for pupils: Through public tests of the students parents were able to see which schools were doing great and then be able to pick the best place for their children. This way schools are then encouraged to improve their records to get more students and then get more money
- The independent sector still plays a significant role in British society – despite its relative small size. How do you account for this?
- 93 % in public schools – means 7 % in independent schools (England and Wales)
- 5 % of Scottish pupils attend private schools
- Different system in Northern Ireland – state schools are selective with 40 % in grammar schools and the rest in non-grammar schools. (NB. når man taler om education skal man kun tænke på England og Wales)
- Significant role because many of the leading figures in Britain comes from those schools (political, commercial, military)
- What are public schools? Name some of the most famous ones.
- The famous ones are Harrow, Eton, Winchester and Marlborough
- Eton in Windsor
- Boarding school open for day pupils as well
- Prince William and Prince Harry
- Private schools / independent schools
- Previously known as public schools, because everyone from the public who passed the examination and pay fees was accepted as pupils. (religion, location and other restrictions did not matter)
- Still determined by entrance exams and fees and not social class
- But of course it is determined on the family’s economy (however, scholarships are a possibility)
- Are both more expensive and more exclusive
- “tend to give their students a better-quality education overall”
- How does McCormick categorize British universities? (84)
- A reduction in staff member, and higher teacher-student ratio. 21:1
- Facilities and buildings have been worsened, and not up to date – in need of restoration
- A system that delegate government funding based on performance have closed universities
- Bureaucracy takes up a lot of time
- The students that study on the universities, leave to work in other countries – perhaps exchange students coming to Britain to study, and then leaving when they are done
- – The introduction of tuition fees by the Major government (1000 pounds per year), and the rise in fees to 9000 per year. This forces students to take loans, and having debt when they leave universities.
- What are the main problems in British higher education? (85f)
- 1. The old universities that has existed for centuries. (Since the twelfth century) Once they were the ONLY universities in Britain, and they were only for men.
- 2. The redbrick universities founded in the late nineteenth and early twentieth.
- 3. Universities founded in 1960 often in the rural areas.
- The new universities that were vocational polytechnics (meaning that they could not give degrees) but they were given university status in 1992.