The Sound of English

1) which has run as a franchise business for more than 25 years (POM:RCl)

An analysis of the sentence ‘Domino’s, which … economic conditions’ shows that ‘has continued’ is the verb of the whole sentence, because it is the verb in the main clause. ‘Domino’s’ is the subject (It is found by asking ‘who has continued?’). The subject is a noun phrase because it is headed by ‘Domino’s’. The rest ‘to expand … conditions’ is the direct object. (The answer to ‘what has Domino’s continued?’). In this way it is clear that the passage in boldface is a subordinate clause. The passage in boldface realizes the function of a postmodifier. The passage modifies the head ‘Domino’s’. It has ‘has run’ as the verb, ‘which’ as the anticipatory subject, and the rest as a direct object. ‘Which’ points back to ‘Domino’s that as mentioned is the subject in the main clause. The form is a relative clause because you can replace ‘which’ with ‘that’.

2) Domino’s 27th outlet in Wales (SC:NP)

An analysis of the first part of the sentence ‘The Tonypandy … in Wales’ shows that ‘is’ is the verb and ‘The Tonypandy restaurant’ is the subject. The function the passage in boldface realizes is a subject complement because of the linking word ‘is’ that takes a subject complement. The form is a noun phrase because the head is ‘Domino’s’ which can represent the whole constituent.

3) across the UK (A:PP)

An analysis of clause ‘and … the UK’ shows that ‘has’ is the verb and ‘it’ is the subject. ‘Over 650 restaurants’ is a subject complement because of the linking verb ‘is’. The passage in boldface realizes the function an adverbial. It is a constituent at main clause level and therefore it is an optional constituent. In this way you can see that the function is an adverbial. In addition to this it tells something about the place which also tells us that it is an adverbial. The form is a prepositional phrase because it begins with the preposition ‘across’. The function of ‘the UK’ is a prepositional complement and the form is a noun phrase because it is headed by UK. ‘The’ is a determiner (def. art.)

4) that Tonypandy was definitely the right location (DO:NCl)

An analysis of this sentence shows that there once again is a subordinate clause inside the main clause. In the main clause the verb is ‘suggests’ and the subject it ‘the fact’. The passage in boldface realizes the function of a direct object. You can use the question method again by asking who/what plus the subject and verb. In this case you will need to insert the word ‘did’. So the question will be ‘what did the fact suggest’. The form of the passage in boldface is therefore a noun clause. ‘That’ is used as a conjunction and it is the same as the Danish ‘at’.

Be aware when you transcribe a whole sentence. There might come a vowel after.

  1. a) ..that beings from other planets have visited Earth (POM: AppCl)

The passage in boldface plus “The idea” is the sucject of the mainclause, which you can verify by using the substitution test and replace the whole thing with “it”. The form of the subject is that of a nounphrase. The passage in boldface has the function of a postmodifier with the form of an appositive clause. The form of the POM is a clause (for example, it contains a verb and is introduced by a conjunction). The clause is an AppCl because it is introduced by “that” as the subordinating conjunction. This clause has “that” as the conjunction introducing it, “beings from other planets” as its subject, “have visited” as its verb, and “Earth” is the DO and has the form of a NP.

  1. b) during the Jurassic Era
  1. c) unfit for habitation (SC: AjP)

The passage in boldface have the function of a SC because “become” is a linking verb that takes subject complement. The form is an AjP because it is headed by an adjective.

  1. d) which were sent to other planets (POM: RCl)

The passage in boldface plus “one of a succession of expeditions” has the function of a subject complement with the form of a nounphrase. The passage in boldface is a postmodifier with the form of a relative clause because it is introduced by “which” which can be replaced by “that”. 

At the beginning of the 1980s, (1) many opinion polls recorded a widespread conviction (2) that trade unions had too much power. (3) By the end of the decade this belief was much less commonly held; since then trade unions have received more popular approval than at any time since the 1950s. This suggests (4) that the government had been successful in its policies.

By the end of the decade (A:PP)
Serves the function of an adverbial because it says something about time and place.

It has the form of a PP because it by “By”, and it is a phrase because it has no subject and verb.

that the government had been successful in its policies. (DO:NCl)

DO object because you can ask the subject and verb + who/what and then the answer is the DO.
Is has the form of a NCl

The paragraph has a topic sentence that states the main idea of the paragraph. The main idea in this paragraph is therefore that home ownership varies widely across the world. Then we have some supporting sentences that explain the topic sentence. These supporting sentences give us information in form of examples with different countries to show that there are big varieties in the world. This can be seen in sentence two and three. The next two sentences elaborate the topic furthermore. The last sentence is a concluding sentence that summarizes the main point of the paragraph.

  1. B)

Home ownership differences around the world
This headline tells you what the paragraph is about.

Task 2
A)
In this paragraph there is a clear presentation of the Phenomenon, which is very important in a causal analysis. You can easily understand that this causal analysis is about the danger of using gas water heaters and flammable liquid closed to each other. There are used chain organization to link the causes and effects. The main course comes first followed by the minor causes.

Task 3
A)
In this paragraph there is used repetition. It is the key word “Paranoia” that is repeated several times. This reinforces the topic and therefore is makes cohesion. It is reiteration.

Task 4
A)
In the first sentence we have the word “is”. This is a grammatical cohesion. It is a personal pronoun in the category co-reference proforms. It is anaphoric because it is pointing backwards. In this case it is point backwards to the first sentence.

Later in the text the word “and” appears. This word belongs under lexico grammatical cohesion. It is additive.

In this paragraph there is also a comment set/field. There is mentioned a lot of different people with different jobs. Together all these jobs make a comment field.

B)
The coherence in the text is comparison and contrast. You can for example see that with a word like “although”

“They may” is also repeated several times to underline the coherence and importance.

B)
To make coherence there is used different transitions signals. Sentence 6 is the last sentence because is start with “On the whole”. This is used as a transition phrase to introduce a conclusion. In sentence (2) there is used a lot of words to describe the semantic filed of the conditions in the mental hospital. It goes from general to particular.

Task 2
A book:
Brunswick, M., Drake, C., Mackenzie, V., Morrision, F. (2001) Europe of the Nations. Edinburg: Lothian Press.

A journal article:

Scott, R. (2004) Informal Integration: the case of the non-monitored economy. Journal of European Integration Studies volume 2, 81-89.

Task 3
A
The predominant language in the text is expressive/emotive. The focus in the text is on the sender, Lori Thicke. This can be seen from the very beginning. The words being used are subjective and personal. For example the word I. This underlines that the focus is on the sender. On p. 1 l. 5 the word painful is used. This is a subjective and loaded word. It tells us something about Lori Thicke’s state of mind, which is very typical for the expressive language function. I l. 7, 11 and 40 she uses the word baby about her company. This is connotative and gives the reader associations about the company and how important it is to Lori Thicke.

  1. B)

The first coherent element in this text is repetition of the key noun, dilemma. The word dilemma is mentioned several times, in the headline, l. 16, 32, 52. It underlines the topic and therefore makes coherence. This kind of repetition is also cohesive. This belongs in the group of reiteration and is lexical cohesive. In the text the writer consistently uses the pronoun I, which also makes coherence. This is shown in most of the paragraphs, for instance in l. 1, 17, 22, 30 and so on. It is clear that it is consistent. I is a personal pronoun and it is grammatical cohesion. It is in the category co-reference proforms. In this text I is anaphoric because it is pointing backwards toward the author, Lori Thicke. In l. 5 the word “this” is used. Like “I” it is a pronoun but it is a demonstrative pronoun. It is also anaphoric because it refers to the above paragraph. She has also used transition signals to link her ideas and create coherence in that way. She several times refers to her company as a baby. The word baby is repeated in l. 7, 11 and 40. This imagery underlines the topic.

Great digital expectations

In the article “Great digital expectations” from The Econimist, September 10, 2011 the author claims that the book business is changing. It is changing because of an enormously digital development seen around the world. E-books are becoming more and more popular at the expense of hardback books, according to the author. The author bases this claim on an examination made of the Association of American Publishers. The author argues that the change from paper books to e-books is a development with both advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are for an example that e-books have a higher profit margin that printed books, and the publishers do not need to use a bunch of time to manage how many books there need to be printed for the books shops. Another advantage for publishers is that old books are becoming popular again after being digitalized. Along with this publishers can also use the popularity of an e-book to see how many paper books they need to print to the bookstores. Even though there are these advantages, the author also points out some disadvantages. The major down side towards e-books is piracy. According to the author, it is very easy to commit privacy of e-books, because the files are much smaller than films and music. The author claims that this problem is very critical because it has some unfortunate consequences. The consequences consist of the prices being raised for many new e-books. Therefore there has been a change in the price setting of e-books. According to the author, publishers now set their own prices on Amazon instead of Amazon itself and therefore the prices on e-books can be very different. The author concludes that all books a different from each other and always have differed in price depending on quality against mass-market produced books.

Task 2

Spence, Kevin. “Nike: By the Numbers” Gatton Student Research Publication. Gatton College of Business & Economics, University of Kentucky. 1.1 (2009). Google scholar

The article delivers and analyzes the revenues Nike has made through the years. And it tells how Nike has gone from a two-man firm into one of the world largest international companys. Revenue is shown from 1980 and forth and commented on by the authors. The article also compare sale from Nike with the revenues from Adidas, which is usful for us because of the enlarged picture. With this article we can see when it went well for Nike and when something went wrong. The article treats the signing of the contract of Michael Jordan as well, due to the extreme rise in revenue this act allowed.

The numbers in the article are gained from www.nikebiz.com. The comments seem rather objective due to the supportive numbers. It’s an article from the university of Kentucky, which is a well-known university. The article is usable because of the factual numbers it contains.

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